The latest study from The National institute for demographic studies confirms the main trends in global demographics, and also raises surprises.
The China-India match
In 400 BC, China (19 million) trailed behind India (30 million). In 1000, China was ahead of India. In 1300, behind again. In 1800, well ahead. In 2011 too. But projections indicate that by 2050 India will have 300 million more than China (1.692 billion against 1.313 billion).
Life expectancy is 70 years on average in the world and 80 in the European Union.
It is 83 years in Japan, 82 years in Switzerland, Australia, Spain and France. And sadly 46 years in Zimbabwe, 52 years in Nigeria and 64 in India.
The fertility rate
Not surprisingly, many countries in Africa has the highest fertility rates, with an average of 7 children per woman. By comparison, the average fertility rate in the world is 2.5, and in the European Union is 1.6.
How many humans were born on earth from the beginning?
Specialists said the number was around 80 billion. With 250 million around the year 0, then the world population will reach 7 billion. Of the 80 billion of the total, almost half were born during the last two millennia, and one in five people was born in the last two centuries.
Macao wins with 21,423 inhabitants per square kilometer, against 116 in the European Union and 2 for Mongolia.
Is there more men than women?
Fortunately, things are fairly balanced. Yet there are a few more boys than girls (107 boys per 100 girls) when they were born. 25 years ago there were 50.4% boys and 49.6% girls. In around 25 years, they will be the same. After that, there will be more women, and the gap will widen in the future.
The case of Nigeria
Nigeria is now the seventh country with its population of 162.3 million inhabitants. It is projected that by 2050, it will be the third after India and China, with 433 million inhabitants. Yet it is the second country in the number of annual deaths of children under one year, but third in number of annual births, with a gross national income per capita of less than one fifth of the world average.